Stalin’s Famines and Walter Duranty

By | January 7, 2013

Walter Duranty: Stalin’s Man on the New York Times.

For many, particularly most Ukrainians, Walter Duranty is a figure of hate, a man trusted with telling the truth about Stalin, only to repeat deliberate untruths, even when he was in a privileged position to highlight Stalin’s famines.

1x1.trans Stalins Famines and Walter Duranty

Walter Duranty

Walter Duranty, A British born, Irish American who had lost a leg in a train crash in France in 1924, was the New York Times correspondent in Moscow from the end of the Russian Civil War onwards.

He was in a prime position to witness the rise of Stalin and he rationalised and explained away the most violent aspects of Lenin’s social restructuring of Russian society. Of the Red Terror and the subsequent establishment of the Gulags for class enemies, Duranty argued that it was a re-imposition of a more traditionally Russian way of doing things.

Ever since Peter The Great had started to modernise and Westernise Russia, the trouble had started, claimed Duranty. Russia needed autocratic rule that would prevent individualism and encourage collectivism, because, as an Asiatic people, not Europeans, he claimed, the freedoms of the west ill suited Russians.

In this crudely simplistic way he explained how and why Lenin’s re-introduction of private enterprise in the guise of the New Economic Policy had been flawed, and that Stalin’s abandonment of that policy was the correct way forward.

Duranty was but one of a whole generation of Western intellectuals and observers at the time who smiled upon the Soviet Union, H.G.Wells, George Bernard Shaw and Sidney and Beatrice Webb were all mightily impressed with what they saw when they visited, and didn’t stop to question whether what they had been shown was a complete picture of the new Soviet society.

Though Duranty predicted the destruction of Russia’s kulaks (the wealthier peasants who were slightly better at farming than their neighbours, and who were accused of being counter revolutionaries), when the campaign to collectivise their farms resulted in famine, Duranty’s great crime was to assist in the cover up.

1x1.trans Stalins Famines and Walter Duranty

Soviet Union Famine and Starvation

The British journalist Malcolm Muggeridge described Duranty as ‘the biggest liar I have ever known’, and both Muggeridge and Welsh journalist Gareth Jones wrote truthful accounts of the famine that killed at least five million in the British and US press.

Duranty, having seen the famine with his own eyes, said:

Any report of a famine in Russia is today an exaggeration or malignant propaganda. The food shortage, however, which has affected the whole population in the last year and particularly in the grain-producing provinces—the Ukraine, North Caucasus, the Lower Volga—has, however, caused heavy loss of life.

Duranty also denounced Jones’ reporting as false, claiming that tense Anglo- Soviet relations were at fault, over the case of six British engineers from the Metro-Vickers company, working on the Moscow underground project, accused of spying:

In the middle of the diplomatic duel between Great Britain and the Soviet Union over the accused British engineers, there appears from a British source a big scare story in the American press about famine in the Soviet Union, with ‘thousands already dead and millions menaced by death from starvation.

Duranty’s attempts at damage limitation were warmly received by Stalin, who granted him an exclusive interview, and his later coverage of the show trials won him a Pulitzer Prize. Duranty was never discredited in his lifetime and was held up publicly as an example of liberal journalism at its best. Since the end of the Soviet Union, however, the demand from the Ukraine, the nation worst affected by Stalin’s famines has been growing to see Duranty posthumously stripped of his Pulitzer and publicly shamed as a liar.

 

You can read a full account of Stalin, Duranty and the famines in my new accessible Explaining History ebook on Soviet Russia, Stalin, The Five Year Plans and the Gulags1x1.trans Stalins Famines and Walter Duranty. For more opinion, analysis and detail on the Soviet Union and 20th Century history in general, visit my website at www.explaininghistory.com, get our weekly newsletter packed with free give aways, book reviews and articles, or download the Explaining History Podcast.

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Author: Nick Shepley

I've been a journalist, a farm hand, a bookseller, a debt collector (which believe me, is nothing short of rank hypocrisy on my part) lecturer in history and pop culture, and most recently a good old fashioned high school teacher. My what an honour; there are actually few things more satisfying to the soul than to help someone to understand the world they've been born into a little better.

4 thoughts on “Stalin’s Famines and Walter Duranty

  1. Roberta Robinson

    itis my understanding that the number of starved to death was 40 million, it was mostly the private property owners they targeted. but hey it could of been an experienment in the fastest cheapest population control by the wealthy elites, who knows. they have always wanted a way to curb the population for easier control, and to reduce their cost of doing business. after all the less people you have the less worried you are of revoltes uprisings and new armies of poor fighting back against unjust slavery and the less money and time you have to spend on pacifing the poor just enough to keep them from revolting.

    Reply
  2. narn

    The highest estimate (and remember these are estimates based on flawed birth rate extrapolations) is 10 million. No one knows the number of deaths, but it probably was under two million. The population of Ukraine was only 20 million in 1932. Duranty’s reporting does not follow modern journalistic standards; however, he is the victim of a smear campaign, seventy years after his reporting, because his dispatches, and many others at the time, do not fit the concocted narrative of a Ukraine genocide. These new spins on the famine’s history rely on an incestuous use of unverifiable or proven fraud newspaper documents and eyewitness accounts.

    Reply
  3. History (@History1917)

    40 seems far too high, Mao’s famine was about 45 million, but most academic and peer reviewed journals agree that a figure between about 5-7 million is probably about right. I err on the side of caution and go with the consensus, (and it you want a well documented study of the entire field of debate you can read my article here: http://hnn.us/articles/soviet-famines-stalinist-genocide)

    I would be interested to know what articles you consider to be fraudulent

    Reply

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